With technology advancing at an incredibly fast pace, there are certain new inventions that scientists have initiated. They are trying their level best to untangle the science that lies behind the numerous biochemical reactions which happen inside a cell, Biochips are basically designed for this reason. These microchips are constructed to perform biological researches or experiments. In other words, biochips can be called miniature laboratories.
According to a recent report by Allied Market Research, the global biochip products and services market is expected to grow with high CAGR, of up to 11.2%, in between 2018 – 2025, due to its increasing applications in drug discovery, genomics and proteomics.
Biochips are a site for biological analysis. It is a sensing component that senses activities of a DNA. To create the biochip platform, this new technology needs help from microarrays to transfer the message to signal processor which will then finally transfer the data to the designated output.
Microarrays – A Collection of Miniaturized Test Sites
Microarrays are two-dimensional grid of biosensors on which the sensor components are placed which can either be passive or active. The sensor components are covalently bonded to the surface of the substrate medium with the help of surface chemistry. It is not an easy task to fabricate microarrays; it may incur major technological and financial hurdles which are ultimately the deciding factor of the future of biochip platforms. The most challenging part of manufacturing biochips is the tedious task of placing every sensor at a specific position on the substrate. On the chip surface, small spots of the sensor material can be placed by various means, however, it is typically carried-out by micro-printing or micro-pipetting. Each sensor is unique and in one time only a few spots can be placed which makes the cost of fabrication pretty high.
Microarrays are majorly used in the analysis of DNA. Microarrays can even be formulated using biochip. This technology is known as Biochip Array technology, in which the substrate is replaced with a biochip. This replaced biochip then starts its work by analyzing a sample and conducting huge number of related tests on the single sample of the patient to finally generate his complete medical profile. The complete medical profile of the patient helps the bio-technician to detect any kind of disease which might be originating in the patient’s body. This helps in advance treatment procedure which will be conducted by the doctor.
Biochip is a complete fundamental functional unit which can perform multi biochemical tasks all together. Biochips along with tissue chips play a major role in tissue engineering technology. Tissue chips are mini units that have the capability to replace a tissue or a particular part of it so as to aid normal organ function.
Miniaturization signals the beginning of a new era or a revolution. DNA chips are grabbing a lot of attention and many more advances are being carried out in this field to make this technology of biochips more reliable and cost effective.